Skip to main content

Atheism: Berkeley and Mach

Image result for tree in the quad

A participant in Yahoo!Answers recently asked this:

In philosophy, how does an atheist idealist react to the criticisms faced, that Berkeley can only reply to using God?

It is a provocative question, and even knowing that I was probably being too helpful regarding someone's homework assignment I couldn't refrain from a reply:

I'll try to reconstruct what you mean here, then provide a three-point answer,

Berkeley said material substance does not exist, matter is only the perception thereof in some mind.

This raises the famous question about the tree in the Quad. Does it exist when no one is around?

Berkeley says that it does still exist, and for this purpose he brings in the always-perceiving Mind of God.

So what you mean to ask is: can an atheist coherently believe that Berkeley was right about the non-existence of material substance, and so the non-existence of unperceived matter, and what would THAT person have to say about the tree in the Quad?

The first point to make in answer to this question is that "atheism" is defined only by negation. An atheist denies what some particular theist asserts. Otherwise, even if we're sure they're denying the same thing, said by the same theist(s), any two atheists might have very different views of the world.

That said, we can move to the second point, which is that MOST atheists are probably non or even anti-Berkeleyan, willing or even eager to asset the objective existence of matter or material substance in some sense.

A third point, though, is that yes there are SOME atheistic Berkeleyans out there. In particular, you might want to study up on Ernst Mach (1836-1916).

My understanding is that to a Machian the unobserved tree in the quad exists only as a postulated source of future or hypothetical observations. These future or hypothetical observations need not be anchored by God -- according to Machians, they float freely, as indeed do we all.

Whether you regard that as a satisfactory conception is of course up to you. 


  1. I assume that "Whether you regard that as a satisfactory conception is of course up to you" is not meant to imply that this is merely a matter of taste. Rather, it implies that you choose not to address the question. For it is not a matter of taste, but is a question that one can debate.

    I agree that, given Berkeleyan views, the unobserved tree exists only as a postulated source of future or hypothetical observations, and that means that it does not exist. And, if it does not exist, it does not float freely, whatever that means. We postulate that it will exist the next time we look because it existed the last time that we looked, and, in our experience, appearances of trees (unlike appearances of, say, bubbles) tend to repeat themselves.

  2. My "up to you" comment did, as you say, merely signal in a friendly spirit that I wasn't going to go any further for now. But I would also accept, as you might not, the idea that there is a subjective component to the goal of a "satisfactory conception" in such matters. I'm thinking of William James' well-known essay on "the sentiment of rationality." Rationality is a sentiment in that it has much in common with aesthetic fitness.


Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

England as a Raft?

In a lecture delivered in 1880, William James asked rhetorically, "Would England ... be the drifting raft she is now in European affairs if a Frederic the Great had inherited her throne instead of a Victoria, and if Messrs Bentham, Mill, Cobden, and Bright had all been born in Prussia?"

Beneath that, in a collection of such lectures later published under James' direction, was placed the footnote, "The reader will remember when this was written."

The suggestion of the bit about Bentham, Mill, etc. is that the utilitarians as a school helped render England ineffective as a European power, a drifting raft.

The footnote was added in 1897. So either James is suggesting that the baleful influence of Bentham, Mill etc wore off in the meantime or that he had over-estimated it.

Let's unpack this a bit.  What was happening in the period before 1880 that made England seem a drifting raft in European affairs, to a friendly though foreign observer (to the older brother…

Cancer Breakthrough

Hopeful news in recent days about an old and dear desideratum: a cure for cancer. Or at least for a cancer, and a nasty one at that.

The news comes about because investors in GlaxoSmithKline are greedy for profits, and has already inspired a bit of deregulation to boot. 

The FDA has paved the road for a speedy review of a new BCMA drug for multiple myeloma, essentially cancer of the bone marrow. This means that the US govt has removed some of the hurdles that would otherwise (by decision of the same govt) face a company trying to proceed with these trials expeditiously. 

This has been done because the Phase I clinical trial results have been very promising. The report I've seen indicates that details of these results will be shared with the world on Dec. 11 at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology. 

The European Medicines Agency has also given priority treatment to the drug in question. 

GSK's website identifies the drug at issue as "GSK2857916," althou…

Francesco Orsi

I thought briefly that I had found a contemporary philosopher whose views on ethics and meta-ethics checked all four key boxes. An ally all down the line.

The four, as regular readers of this blog may remember, are: cognitivism, intuitionism, consequentialism, pluralism. These represent the views that, respectively: some ethical judgments constitute knowledge; one important source for this knowledge consists of quasi-sensory non-inferential primary recognitions ("intuitions"); the right is logically dependent upon the good; and there exists an irreducible plurality of good.

Francesco Orsi seemed to believe all of these propositions. Here's his website and a link to one relevant paper:

What was better: Orsi is a young man. Born in 1980. A damned child! Has no memories of the age of disco!

So I emailed him asking if I was right that he believed all of those things. His answer: three out of …